In botany and zoology, the ability to grow or live both on land and in water. Having previously been the realm of gentlemen and naturalists, zoology became an increasingly professional scientific discipline in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Explorer-naturalists such as Alexander von Humboldt studied the interaction between organisms and their environment and how this relationship depends on geography, laying the foundation for biogeography, ecology and ethology. Naturalists began to reject essentialism and consider the importance of species extinction and variability.  The idea of novels as biological specimens creates a crazy and mythical zoology of hybrids, beasts, mutants and aberrations. Lewontin received a bachelor`s degree in biology from Harvard in 1951 before completing postgraduate studies at Columbia University, where he earned a master`s degree in mathematical statistics in 1952 and a doctorate in zoology in 1954. Mixed with all the bizarre zoology, however, are many incredibly accurate and detailed descriptions. Evolutionary biology is based partly on paleontology, which uses the fossil record to answer questions about the mode and pace of evolution, and partly on developments in fields such as population genetics and evolutionary theory. Following the development of DNA fingerprinting techniques in the late 20th century, the application of these techniques in zoology improved the understanding of animal populations. In the 1980s, developmental biology returned to evolutionary biology from its initial exclusion from modern synthesis through the study of evolutionary developmental biology. Related fields often considered part of evolutionary biology include phylogenetics, systematics, and taxonomy.  On the website of the Department of Zoology at the University of Cambridge, Arik Kershenbaum`s page lists his three main areas of research, one of which stands out from the others. Although the study of animal life is ancient, its scientific incarnation is relatively modern. This reflects the shift from natural history to biology in the early 19th century. Since Hunter and Cuvier, comparative anatomical study has been linked to morphography and has shaped modern fields of zoological research: anatomy, physiology, histology, embryology, teratology, and ethology.  Modern zoology first appeared in German and British universities. In Britain, Thomas Henry Huxley was a prominent figure.
His ideas focused on the morphology of animals. Many consider him the greatest comparative anatomist of the second half of the 19th century. Like Hunter, his classes consisted of lectures and lab work, unlike the previous lecture format. Scientific classification in zoology is a method by which zoologists group and categorize organisms by biological type such as genus or species. Biological classification is a form of scientific taxonomy. Modern biological classification has its roots in the work of Carl von Linnaeus, who grouped species according to common physical characteristics. These groupings have since been revised to improve consistency with the Darwinian principle of common descent. Molecular phylogenetics, which uses the nucleic acid sequence as data, has resulted in many recent revisions and will likely continue to do so. Biological classification belongs to the science of zoological systematics.  The history of zoology traces the study of the animal kingdom from antiquity to modern times. Prehistoric peoples had to study the animals and plants in their environment in order to exploit and survive. In France, there are 15,000-year-old cave paintings, engravings and sculptures that show bison, horses and deer in great detail.
Similar images from other parts of the world mainly showed animals hunted for food, but also wild animals.  These sample phrases are automatically selected from various online information sources to reflect the current use of the word “zoology”. The views expressed in the examples do not represent the views of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us your feedback. Many people are fascinated by animals, so zoology can be quite a competitive field. However, there are many types of jobs in zoology. Many zoologists are researchers who study animals in the laboratory and/or in the field. To be the head of a research laboratory, a PhD is required.
Another role in zoology is that of a wildlife rehabilitator, who cares for orphaned or injured wild animals to improve their health so they can return to their natural habitat. Other zoologists work in zoos as zookeepers and zoo keepers who care for zoo animals, monitor their behavior, train them, and educate the public about animals. Many zoologists also work in conservation, where they conduct research, gather information about endangered species, and educate people about these species. Entry-level jobs in zoology typically require a bachelor`s degree and some experience working with animals, while more advanced positions may require a master`s or doctoral degree. During the post-classical era, Middle Eastern science and medicine were the most advanced in the world, incorporating concepts from ancient Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia and Persia, as well as the ancient Indian tradition of Ayurveda, and making many advances and innovations.  In the 13th century, Albertus Magnus wrote commentaries and paraphrases of all of Aristotle`s works; His books on topics such as botany, zoology, and minerals contained information from ancient sources, but also the results of his own research.